Title (Original): 身代限り
Title: Shindai kagiri
Translated title: No: 05. Going Bankrupt. (Fuji Arts of Japanese Prints)
“Long Live Japan: One Hundred Victories, One Hundred Laughs”
(Nihon Banzai, Hyakusen Hyashushô) (日本萬歳 百撰百笑)
Kobayashi Kiyochika (1847-1915) 小林清親
Japanese woodblock print (nishiki-e); ink and colour on paper
Publisher: Matsuki Heikichi. : 松木平吉
Publication Date: 1894
This print title Shindai kagiri is a double entendre between a “foreclosure” and “as long as Qing lasts.” Kiyochika presented a visual riddle to accompany Nishimori’s text; A Chinese merchant is calling out for a fire sale of traditional Chinese goods, from locks named Jiuliancheng to a vase labelled Ryojun (Port Arthur) to two customers, presumably a Japanese military officer and a British man. The merchant claims the store Yamato, referring to Japan, already acquired most items, but he still has left-over to sell. The catch here is the goods sold are traditional Chinese items, suggesting that China was saddled with its outdated ways.
Hoover Institution Library Archives from Fanning The Flames: Propaganda in Modern Japan
The series title Hyakusen hyakusho, literally "One Hundred Victories, One Hundred Laughs", is a pun on the expression "One Hundred Battles, One Hundred Victories" (both pronounced Hyakusen hyakusho).1 The series was issued in three parts and presented parodies of the enemy, here of the Chinese in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 and ten years later the Russians in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. The first part of the series titled Long Live Japan: One Hundred Victories, One Hundred Laughs, consisting of fifty oban-sized prints issued between September 1894 and August 1895, and published by Matsuki Heikichi. The second part of the series titled Magic Lantern Society: One Hundred Victories, One Hundred Laughs, consists of twelve prints, was issued between November 1895 and December 1895. Both of these parts parodied (often in a racist manner) the Chinese people, leadership and war effort. The third and last part of the series, consists of eight-six prints, and used the same title as the first part Long Live Japan: One Hundred Victories, One Hundred Laughs and was issued between April 1904 and April 1905. The prints parodied the Russian war effort.
Each print in the series is illustrated with a humorous scene related to the war (the first 2 parts related to the Sino-Japanese War and the third part to the Russo-Japanese War) by the artist Kobayashi Kiyochika (1847-1915) and contains accompanying comments, riddled with wordplay and irony, by the writer/journalist Nishimori Takeki (1861-1913), using the pseudonym Koppi Dojin ("Master Skin and Bones"). The series title Hyakusen hyakusho appears in the cartouche in the upper right of the print.
The print's title and the pseudonym Koppi Dojin appear in the right most column within each text box at the top of the print. The woodblock prints in this series are pure propaganda, and it cannot be denied that from today's point of view some depictions are quite racist.
Kiyochika produced this manga series of political cartoons during the Sino-Japanese war in 1894-1895, when Japan fought with China for control over Korea and won. The title of the series is a pun on the phrase, “One Hundred Battles, One Hundred Victories.”
This unique series is one of Kiyochika’s most unusual works. Drawn in a distinctly comic style, each print is a wildly imaginative illustration filled with unrestrained fantasy and exaggeration. Kiyochika’s satiric depictions poked fun at the Chinese and flaunted the new modernization of Meiji era Japan as superior to the old ways of China. Ironically, these images often paralleled the “anti-Oriental” cartoons that Westerners were producing at the same time.
The Lavenberg Collection of Japanese Prints
The Tsubouchi Memorial Theatre of Waseda University Museum
Japanese Woodblock Print Collection, Hoover Institution Archives (2019C113.019)
The Lavenberg Collection of Japanese Prints web-site
Henry D. Smith II, KIYOCHIKA – Artist of Meiji Japan. Santa Barbara Museum of Art. 1988: pp.112-13.